Tuesday, April 2, 2013

Term 3 Extra Credit

                                                                                                                                             Evan Megan
        Both Imperialism and Nationalism related with World War II, as leaders often shared mutual motivation for fighting in both. World War II leaders and Imperialist leaders both strove the promotion of the more "Dominant Race". In World War II, German leader, Adolf Hitler wrote Mein Kampf, which established many of the Nazi party ideologies. In Mein Kampf, Hitler promoted the Aryan race (Mein Kampf readings). For Hitler, the promotion of the Aryan race was a driving force behind much of his fighting in WWII. Hitler fought to rid his country of all other races. Similarly, Imperialist leaders took over other nations to spread the influence of their own race. In 1871 the British ruled India. In India, the British felt it was their responsibility as the White, supreme race, to show the Indians their culture. The British imperialists built hospitals, schools, and roads in India (91 of imperialism reader). Imperialist leaders took over nations so that they could spread the benefits of their race, as well as eliminate the culture of native peoples. BothWorld War II leaders and Imperialist leaders worked to fight for their own race.
         World War II also related with Nationalism, as the leaders often fought for the restoration of old values. Benito Mussolini, an Italian Fascist leader who took control of Italy in 1922, fought to restore the Roman Empire. He did this by trying to conquest more land, such as Ethiopia (Benito Mussolini ABC-CLIO). For Mussolini, the restoration of old values was drove him to fight. Nationalist leaders also fought to restore old values. Chinese nationalist leader, Chiang Kai-Shek tried to take control of China in the Inter-War Period. Chiang tried to take control so that he may restore ancient values of modesty and righteousness, also known as "Li Yi Lian Chi" (pg 105 Totalitarianism leader). Chiang Kai-Shek was driven to fight for the restoration of old values. World War II was able to relate with Imperialism and Nationalism, as the leaders often shared common goals in both.

Term 3 Extra Credit

During the time between World War I and II, nations were in chaos; their economies had worsened and a loss of pride in nations such as Germany caused widespread grief around the world. From this chaos emerged totalitarian leaders, such as Hitler and Mussolini, who used fear and violence to gain power. These leaders, although threatening to the voice of the people, also inspired nationalist beliefs within their countries. These beliefs inspired an aggression in nations similar to that during imperialism. The totalitarian leaders brought their countries against other nations, many times succeeding and many times resulting in a loss for the nation. For example, the nationalist and imperialist beliefs of Japan inspired its people to invade China in order to gain control of East Asia (China video); however, this caused an influx of nationalism in China, who then fought back and kept their land. Also in Germany, Hitler led his country into a battle against Poland in 1939 (presentations), this caused tension amongst the various nations and was a cause for World War II.
            Nationalism and Imperialism both connect to World War II as the beliefs held by the two ideas caused tension between many nations, many of whom were later involved in the second World War. In nationalism, the pride held in one’s nation inspired by totalitarian leaders caused tension between different nations which ultimately was a reason for World War II. Imperialism inspired a warlike aggression between nations where many nations invaded each other, causing tension that ultimately resulted in World War II.-Tyler Jung

Term 3 Extra Credit

Peter Hereu
The two units that I think I can connect together and further connect to World 2 would be imperialism and nationalist movements. The way I am connecting these three units would be how imperialism and nationalism were causes of World War 2 and further more how nationalism was within imperialism. Nationalism was found within imperialism, as these leaders that conducted these imperialistic movements would give the soldiers a reason to fight for their country. For example, in Italy Mussolini arranged for every soldier that was wounded was to where a patch that said, “it doesn’t matter”. This would emphasize the fact that the personal injury didn’t matter as the outcome for the country was more crucial. Another example would be in Japan, which was to believe in the gods that the totalitarian leader spoke of. This would give the soldiers a great reason to fight for their country. Both these examples happened before an imperialistic action to therefore make the nation stronger.

To more specifically connect all three of these units, Imperialism used nationalism to give the soldiers a reason to fight and believe in the nation, which would create successful imperialistic actions. Then furthermore connecting World War 2 as the use of nationalism and imperialism created international tension that created the all-important domino effect to create a second world war.    

term 3 extra credit

Teddy Warmington
Extra credit

Those who lived during the ages of the Industrial Revolution, Interwar Totalitarianism, and World War II, were affected by the harsh exploitation of their leaders. While in the industrial revolution, English industrialists took full advantage of the theory Laissez Faire. Since the state wasn’t  interfering with the economic activities of the people, factories provided the workers with long hours, and very small wages. The owners of these businesses exploited the people by paying the workers low wages  just so that they could maximize their profits. When Stalin initiated a centralized economy, the totalitarian government controlled what would be produced and who would produce it. By regulating where, when, and how the people worked, the Russian government exploited their people and industries by making them work work long hours, and produce large amounts with little pay. This exploitation travels into World War II, where the use of forced labor proves to be a vital part of the Germany’s economic stability. As the war progressed, the use of slave labor increased massively in order to provide labor in the German war industry, repair bombed railroads and bridges, or work on farms. The Nazi’s exploited Prisoners in the labor camps who were worked to death on short rations and in bad conditions, or killed if they became unable to work. The exploitation of people are seen throughout the industrialization revolution, Interwar Totalitarianism and World War II.

Quarter 3 Extra Credit-Victoria Klenk

            2 units that connect are the classical world and the medieval world. In both units, the Chinese empire maintains regional dominance. In the classical world, China had regional dominance. They showed their regional dominance in their advances in architecture and science. On example of this is their advances water engineering. The “Chinese built canals…for military purposes…for transporting commercial goods as well”1. The Chinese used their technology to first expand and help their military, and then to expand their economy.
            In the Medieval world unit, the Chinese empire was also regionally dominant. During Medieval times, china had advanced cities with large market places, and bridges.2  Like in Classical times, this shows china’s regional dominance through their engineering. They are once again helping their economy by building easily accessible and large market places. Throughout history china used their advanced technology to better their economy.
1"Enviornment + Technology: Water Engineering in China," in Unit 2: Classical Civilizations and Regional Dominance, 68.
2Marco Polo, "Of the Noble and Magnificent City of Kin-Sai," The Italien Merchant Marco Polo Described the Magnificent Chinese City of Kin-Sai, 1299, 96.

Monday, April 1, 2013

Term 3 Extra Credit- Brian Creonte

Brian Creonte
Purple Block

The end of World War 1, in 1918, marked the beginning of the Interwar Period, a chaotic period of time when totalitarian leaders rose to power to solitarily take control of their country. Through deceit, propaganda, charisma, and promises for a brighter future, these leaders were able to gather their country’s undivided support. One example of propaganda produced and endorsed by a totalitarian dictator is the piece Mein Kampf, written by Adolf Hitler. In this piece, Hitler blames Germany’s past problems on the Jews, and calls all Germans and Aryans to support his extermination of the Jews. One way that leaders were able to single handedly control their country was the extreme promotion of nationalism, in order to create a common national identity. Totalitarian leaders were then able to harness people’s support with very little effort, by implementing policies that were viewed favorably by the new national identity. Different totalitarian leaders came to power very differently. Some dictators came to power lawlessly, through the overthrow of the former leader, while others came to power legally. Once in power, however, these leaders behaved very similarly, implementing policies to protect their complete power and control, aggressive foreign policies, and the extreme promotion of the state. Many totalitarian dictators sought short-term solutions for their country’s economic struggles after the war, in an effort to gain support and devotion from their people.
Nationalism and Interwar Totalitarianism have a strong connection to the development of World War II. After World War I, the defeated countries, the Triple Alliance, especially Germany, felt taken advantage of by the Treaty of Versailles. These countries turned toward a definitive, and aggressive leader, who promised a brighter future to the people of his country, and came to power. These leaders acted impulsively, and very aggressively, and these actions were a large contributing factor to the development of World War II. Totalitarian dictators, such as Benito Mussolini and Adolf Hitler, used their people’s nationalist feelings as an excuse to act against countries that they had tensions with. Nationalism and Interwar Totalitarianism connect to the development of World War II because an increase in nationalist feelings led to the implementation of Totalitarian dictators, who acted very aggressively in the pursuit of national pride, another defining trait of nationalism.

Term 3 extra credit-Giuliana Psyhogeos

Giuliana Psyhogeos
Extra Credit- Term 3
   Though we have studied many units this year the two that connect most to the current unit, World War II are Nationalist Movements, and Interwar Totalitarianism.  In Nationalist Movements nations stood together unified, to benefit the country as a whole.  The struggles from during and after the war lead people such as Hitler and Mussolini into power.  The people needed a stable role within their countries the Totalitarian leaders were the answer.  The strive to become a unified state lead countries into Interwar Totalitarianism, which leaders controlled every aspect of the peoples lives.  Having one person in charge, taking total control over all bodies of the country from one person.  Totalitarian leaders were trusted as the people needed a strong figure to look towards during the hardships of the wars.  As the Totalitarian leaders rose to power the strengths of countries as a whole did as well.  The actions taken by the leaders connect to World War II as they were involved in the start of another World War.  Connecting Nationalist Movements, and Interwar Totalitarianism to the study of World War II helps because Totalitarians rose from nationalist ideals and contributed to World War II. 

Sarah Hollingsworth
Extra Credit Term 3

I think that World War I and Interwar Totalitarianism are the two units that we’ve studied that connect the most to World War II. World War I and Interwar Totalitarianism were the cause of World War II. World War I partially caused World War II because Germany, Japan, Italy, China, and Russia were all in an economic state that was worse than it had been in years prior. At the end of World War I, Germany signed the Treaty of Versailles; however, they ended up going against what it said which led to World War II, because rules were no longer being followed and chaos erupted. Interwar totalitarianism also was partially to blame for World War II because chaos erupted because money no longer had a value and famine and debt occurred. Interwar Totalitarianism and World War I best connected to World War II because there were many negative actions that occurred during both World War I and Interwar Totalitarianism that led to World War II. 

Term 3 extra credit

                                                                                                                                      John Luby


                                                               Term 3 Extra credit

                   Throughout the many units we have studied this year the two that strongly connect to the World War II unit are the nationalism unit and the industrial revolution unit.  Nationalism caused many nations to grow economically stable and made citizens to become proud that they are citizens of the nation. This pride and nationalism was a product of an increase in industrialization. This newly found wealth gave countries like Germany, Italy and Russia the ability to overcome their economic challenges and try to become a strong global power.  The Totalitarian leaders used this pride and new gained loyalty to their benefit by convincing the public that what they were doing was completely all right. Benito Mussolini for example implanted the idea that dying for the nation in a war was supporting the nation. This nationalism gave Mussolini a lot of loyalty from the citizens of Italy. In Germany Adolf Hitler convinced the citizens of Germany that the economic struggles were caused by the Jews. Hitler then used realpolitik by completely ignoring the Treaty of Versailles and started industrializing more and building up Germany’s Army. This increased industrialization was a product of nationalism. This major increase of industrial wealth wouldn’t have been possible if Hitler hadn’t used the Jews as a scapegoat thus instilling nationalism into the public. However this sudden loyalty and nationalism would also not have surfaced if the German economy wasn’t suffering.  German citizens were very accepting of the idea of creating more jobs by industrializing even if it meant going against the Treaty of Versailles.     

Diana Katsikaris
 Extra Credit- Term 3: Connection Between Units 

The Units: Nationalist Movements, World War I, and Interwar Totalitarianism all connect through social development, which leads to the consideration of drawing upon a conclusion of the start of World War II. In Nationalist Movements, each nation was trying to boost its individual morale by trying to benefit the nation as a whole. In spite of nationalist movements, the Totalitarian Regime enforced new ways of living and benefiting the nation as a whole through the power of one sole leader. The Japanese believed that they had the strongest nationalism, and were pushed into forming unity and following their leader, Mao Zedong. In Italy, Mussolini gave Italians pride and loyalty through their country through fascism. Fascism was the glorification of the nation-state itself. In Germany, Nationalism referred to the superiority of the Aryan race. Hitler gave the people hope after the mental destruction of Germany after World War I, and helped to boost the German morale. The German nationalists also believed that Germany, and the German people in particular were the most pure, which gave them the right to conquer other nations and “purify” them. Back tracking to the end of World War I, the Treaty of Versailles granted protection to the nation-states that had been physically destroyed after the war such as Italy, France, and Great Britain. After the war, nations decided to build upon their own nationalist beliefs and under the rule of totalitarian leaders were able to boost their moral and become stronger. Furthermore, the Treaty of Versailles was the catalyst for building tension between the nations, because each nation was able to become stronger, and each had the form of the belief that they were better than the rest. Moving foreword, the start of World War II resulted with the disappearance of the Treaty of Versailles completely, because the German people felt that they were the best and purist race out there, therefore giving them the right to begin their “purification” of the other nations. Also, the German people were angered with their treatment during the time of the Treaty of Versailles, giving them more of a reason to boost up their strength and attack for revenge. The Units: Nationalist Movements, World War I, Interwar Totalitarianism, and World War II, all have a connection because each event was a cause that lead up to the uproar of World War II. The nationalist movements gave the nations a way to boost their morale and better their nation, while World War I caused a treaty that gave protections to be made in order for each nation to turn to totalitarianism and further better themselves in the race to be on top, concluding in World War II where the German people seeked their revenge and felt that they were the purist and need to begin purifying all of the nations. 

The two units that I think intertwine the most with World War Two are World War One and Interwar Totalitarianism. This is because I believe those units are the two main causes of how the second world war started.  After World War One, Japan, China, Italy, Germany and Russia were left in complete chaos.  All countries were left in great debt, with no way to pay it off.  Along with the economic instability, China had trouble with trade, Italy had no natural resources, and both Russia and Germany were in a state of extreme poverty and inflation. Consequently, because of all of the chaos left from WW1, the people of those countries were in despair. They craved a leader who could promise and fulfill beneficial change. Moreover, this is when Totalitarian Leaders stepped in and gained complete control.
Although the Totalitarian leaders stepped in and various changes were made, chaos involving the citizens arose. For example, the rights of the people decreased drastically and  "[the leaders] scorned the democratic ideals of civil liberties, of the dignity the individual, and world peace, and they openly declared their intent to destroy democracy" (49).  The citizens were no longer able to act for themselves, "If the state was a machine, its citizens were simply parts- parts that worked smoothly and quietly were oiled. Those that made noise were removed and discarded" (62). Therefore in spite of the citizen's rights decreasing, even more chaos evolved.
World War One and Interwar Totalitarianism intertwined the most with World War Two because of the effect they had on the countries, causing the war to begin.

Natasha Snapper
Purple Block