Thursday, November 8, 2012

Dean Caruso Extra Credit

One of the main reasons I decided to enroll in political science last spring was because I felt that I didn't have enough knowledge about politics. Through the campaign blog post project and the current issue powerpoint project, I was able to develop a growth mindset and learn more about how campaigns are run and what the main issues were in the present. In the campaign project, I was assigned Lyndon Johnson's campaign, and everyone else was assigned a different campaign. Once everyone had posted their report, I was able to read about many different campaign's and see the striking similarities between them. I learned a lot about how important it is for candidates to connect with the people, an how extremism is almost always unpopular with voters. By having a growth mindset and wanting to learn more about the subject, I was able to gain a lot of knowledge about campaigning form this project.

Another project that helped me gain more knowledge about politics was the current issue project. Everyone was assigned a current campaign issue to research and prepare a lesson for the class on that issue. I was assigned to research gun control, which before doing the project I never really expressed an  opinion about. I noticed that I didn't  have strong opinions on many of the current issues facing our country today. I adopted a growth mindset to learn more about these issues so that I can have my own opinion and not just repeat what other people say. This project helped me learn a lot about current issues, and my growth mindset has helped me become a more well-informed citizen.

Extra Credit Grant Kaplan Political Science Term 1

Grant Kaplan
Political Science
Extra Credit
 When I first signed up for political science I had basic knowledge about the structure of the federal government, the two main political parties, and the ideas of the two presidential candidates. I craved more knowledge, however. I had heard of the major issues that were absorbing each candidate’s time and energy, but I had trouble understanding their points because I was so uninformed on the issues they would discuss. Through current events assignments and the current issue study project I have become better equipped to understand and participate in more political debates and provide support for my arguments. I have used current events assignments to challenge myself with a variety of news pieces ranging from “Syrian rebels gain weaponry from extremist groups” to “Facebook reaches 1 Billion Users,” in an attempt to determine how seemingly unrelated events such as Facebook reaching 1 billion users can impact the presidential election. Another major issue that I had trouble understanding was the deficit and its impact. Thankfully, I was stuck with it as my topic for the current issue study project and was forced to become an expert in order to teach the class. First, I found a diverse group of reliable resources to gather my information from, and then I went to work studying the history of the deficit as well as the opinions of economists and the candidates. I had learned both from last year’s junior thesis, as well as this year’s current events, how to find great, reliable sources for a research project, and used this knowledge to secure my understanding of the deficit with websites, scholarly journals, primary sources, and books. I have not received any feedback on my deficit lesson because I haven’t taught it yet, and I have not received too much feedback on my current events besides the first assignment when I forgot to answer one of the guiding questions on the instruction page. I am very glad that I chose to take Political Science because I believe I have learned a great amount of information about current issues, political campaign finance and strategies, and researching techniques as well as added information in the structure of the federal government among other topics previously discussed briefly in other history courses.

Extra Credit- Will Hartnett

Will Hartnett
Extra Credit

During the first term of Political Science we had two debates. The first debate was about the Electoral College and whether it should remain in effect or whether a new system should be implemented. I was on Pro-electoral college team. I chose to rebuttal against someone in the other group. I thought my rebuttal went very well. I felt as though I made multiple good points. The debate finished and my team lost by a slight margin. I was proud of myself and felt that I had done the best I could. However, when I received feedback I was confused. I was told that my argument had lacked structure and was more rambling than anything. I was told that I had to slow down and structure my argument better. At first I was surprised and frustrated that I had not done as well as I had once thought. However, when I went back to check over what I had prepared, I realized that the feedback was correct.  The points I had brought up were simply stated facts. I failed to analyze what I discovered. This led to my rebuttal feeling like a rambling rant as opposed to an organized comeback.
The next debate we had was on whether Super PACS were legal or whether the constitution should be amended to make them illegal.  For this debate I was on the pro side, arguing that super PACS should remain legal. For this debate I demonstrated a growth mindset and carefully organized my argument. I stated a piece of relevant evidence, immediately followed by thoughtful analysis. During the actual debate I made sure to slow down, and focus on what I was saying. I demonstrated a growth mindset by changing my debate preparations, and rhetoric in order to appear more composed as opposed to rambling. I was able to use feedback I received from the first debate to improve my performance in the second debate. 

Term 1 Extra Credit---Elsa

The assignment I used a growth mindset in was the research blog post on our presidents. Coming out of U.S. History and writing the junior thesis, I kept in mind the problems I had when researching and writing my thesis as well as the feedback I received about it. Ultimately, my growth mindset was to use the knowledge I gained from writing that paper and apply it to this blog post. One thing I learned when writing my junior thesis was that it is easier to write a thesis after gathering evidence. The way the junior thesis was set up, we had to turn in our thesis before we had completed our research. When I wrote the blog post, I solidified my idea after my research had been completed. I think this made for a stronger, more provable paper. I think junior thesis also taught me to be a better researcher by allowing me to figure out what types of sources are best. For my blog post, I mostly used concrete primary source evidence such as speeches and an election ad. Overall, by doing my blog post, I used the feedback I had gotten from my junior thesis to grow to be a better historical writer and researcher.
            I did not receive feedback while working on the project, however the comment from a peer that I got after I had posted my project really showed her understanding of my post. I thought the fact that she understood my point and the evidence presented showed the success of my post. The growth mindset I used while completing this project really helped the final product to be as successful as it was in clarity, quality of research and argument. I have learned from this experience how to apply past feedback to make future research papers even more successful.

Monday, November 5, 2012

Political Science Extra Credit Term 1

     When I switched into this class in mid-September, I came in with a firm mindset on my political views. For the first month I held strongly to my convictions and defended my views on certain issues such as the economy. In October, I was assigned to spend a period educating the class about a 2012 campaign issue. I was assigned to teach Job Loss / Economic Growth. At first, I thought the project would be a breeze. I thought I knew everything about the economy and was looking forward to enlightening the class. Boy was I wrong. After spending hours upon hours researching, I realized how under informed I was about the economy and how it works. After carefully organizing my presentation to be easy to follow yet rich in information, I noticed a massive boost in my knowledge about the economy and job creation. I have not received any feedback yet because I turned the assignment in today, but I am looking forward to hearing the classes’ feedback.
     This project was a great learning experience for me because I was able to gain new perspective and insight on an issue I once thought I knew so much about. I demonstrated a growth mindset by listening to the rigorous constructive feedback my father gave me and used it to modify my presentation to be the best it could be. In addition to my father’s feedback, I also learned the value of having an open mind. Before working on the presentation, I held a strict view on the economy and how to improve it in a variety of ways. Now, after stopping to listen and have an open mind, I have modified my view to be less narrow-minded in finding the endless possibilities to enable the economy to prosper.

Wednesday, October 31, 2012

10th Grade World History Extra Credit Term 1: Charlotte Brick

When working on the Industrial Revolution Writing Workshop assignment, I demonstrated a growth mindset and was able to improve my self. When put into groups one, two or three for this assignment I chose group two to be best fitting. I chose this because I knew I could rely on myself for coming up with a thesis but I also knew I could use the help of working with my peers to improve myself. Being placed in the group two actually did end up benefiting me. I was able to learn from the kids that I worked with and see their ideas on the subject; which opened my eyes into different ways in answering the one question. I often have trouble changing my thesis once it’s been made, but during this assignment I changed my thesis three different times. I think this shows the growth mindset because I was willing to change my work and admit that the first product although may seem good, might not always be your best answer. Using the growth mindset allows you to push yourself and use your talents to their greatest level. The growth mind set also doesn’t mean you have to be 100 percent correct, sometimes you will be wrong but the ability to be willing to try again means a lot. Just knowing that you put all your effort in shows that your trying and will eventually learn or succeed. 

Term 1 Extra Credit (TAN)

Eunice Lee

Extra Credit for Term 1

From this term, I demonstrated a growth mind-set for the Industrial Revolution Writing Workshop assignment. This assignment was to create a thesis based on what we have learned throughout the Industrial revolution unit and write a body paragraph. Unfortunately, on the day of the writing work shop, I realized that I had to write a body paragraph for homework , not only the essay outline. I was embarrassed by my clumsiness and bewildered because I was confident after working hard on the outline for homework. While other classmates were peer-editing each other’s paragraphs, I thought that I would not be able to get any edit from peer and my essay won’t improve much. So, after class, I sent my body paragraph to my writing workshop group members for peer-edit. One of the peer said many of my evidences that I felt strongly confident in body my paragraph was too stretched and not directly related to my argument. Although I arrived in class not completely prepared for the writing workshop and had to work extra at home, I tried to encourage myself that I can revise my essay and make it stronger and clear. Also I told myself that I have enough time to work on it during the weekend as well. First, I tried to compare the feedbacks from two different peers so that I can make changes based on the feedbacks that they both gave. Afterwards, the second draft seemed more clear and had relevant evidences. I usually hesitate to take out some wordy sentences or analysis because I thought it makes my analysis more deeper. However, for this essay assignment, I took a risk to take out sentences that made my argument unclear and irrelevant to the topic sentence. Additionally, since I knew that I always struggle with word choices and grammar, I searched dictionary for more appropriate dictions and corrected the grammars. After several revisions, I compared my final draft with my first one. I was able to see improvements in my essay. It was more concise and clear. Even the words that was unclear in the first draft was understandable. I also visited social studies lab to make sure my essay was concise from teacher’s prospective as well. Luckily, Mr. Getz gave me a feedback that overall my essay has a strong idea and relevant evidences except for few parts were unclear. My growth mind-set improved my social study writing skill that I thought about it in fixed-mind set, believing that I will always have a limited ability to write social studies essay because of my language barrier.

Tuesday, October 30, 2012

world history extra credit

Evan Megan

During term one I demonstrated a growth mindset when transitioning from the Thomas Malthus paragraph onto larger writing assignments such as the first writing workshop, in which I made an essay outline about how industrialization spurred new ideologies about social and political rights. When writing the Thomas Malthus paragraph, I used writing strategies from last year, such as always making clear connections between analysis and the thesis. After getting the paragraph back, you hadn’t written a grade, but instead formative comments, which included making a clear topic sentence. By receiving comments instead of a grade on my paragraph, my attention became focused on improving my writing, as opposed to accepting my grade with a fixed mindset. Using a growth mindset, I pursued improving my writing by targeting specific elements which I had received comments on, such as topic sentences, during the writing workshop assignment. I saw a big improvement in the writing workshop assignment from my Thomas Malthus paragraph because, the growth mindset I had allowed me to focus on improving my work in specific areas I had received formative comments on.

Modern World History Extra Credit
Blue Block
Diana Katsikaris 

A time when I displayed a growth mindset was during the 1st term was when we were drafting thesis statements as a group for the Communist Manifesto Collective Argument. At first, our thesis statement was all of my group’s idea thrown into one sentence. We were having some difficulties incorporating all of our ideas and making the wording sound correct. Then, we received some feedback from Ms. Shapero where she asked us how and why, and some more questions on our thesis, which helped us to decide what we needed to elaborate and focus on. I demonstrated a growth mindset because instead of giving up and just letting one person in the group come up with the thesis, I tried to include everyone’s ideas, and also played around with wording. I did not have one or 2 drafts of a thesis, but many. There were crossed out words, and many edits on the page. We also talked as a group about how we could express all of our ideas in the best wording possible. The growth mindset helped improve my learning because we worked and negotiated as a group, and continued to play around with wording and ideas to make our thesis statement a finished product of a factual and a judgmental statement.      

Term One Extra Credit

During the first term of Modern World History I feel that I have displayed a growth mindset. A couple weeks ago you told us the date of our first test. Knowing that I am usually very bad at taking tests, I freaked out. I also had 3 other tests that week, so I was even more stressed. I had about 3 days before the test and I had many other assessments to prepare for and I became very overwhelmed. The day before the test I was studying all the material and going over it with my mom, having her quiz me. I kept saying “ I cant do this, I am going to fail”. This did not help me because it only put me in negative thinking. I changed “ I can’t do this” and “ I am going to fail” to “ I can do this, this material is hard but if I keep studying I can learn it”. Even though I didn’t do the best I have ever done on the test, I knew that displaying the growth mindset put me in a better mood and a more positive attitude toward tests. This growth mindset improved my learning because it keeps me having an open mind, a positive attitude and becoming less stressed. I will keep changing my fixed mind set, to the growth mindset to help me over the year. -Natasha Snapper

Modern World History extra credit

Tyler Jung

            This term, I have demonstrated the growth mindset during the first writing workshop. We were supposed to write, and peer edit the theses and body paragraph’s of our classmates. The body paragraph and thesis was about the industrial revolution. I definitely received some positive feedback, from both my peers and you (Ms. Shapero).  Most of the feedback revolved on the relevance of my thesis and the analysis in my body paragraphs.  I took the feedback into serious consideration, as I know that in the past I have had difficulties with writing theses and analysis.  I demonstrated the growth mindset by not giving up on my writing! I’ve been making similar mistakes since the beginning of 9th grade, yet I have improved TREMENDOUSLY, although I’m far from a perfect writer. I will continue to work on this, and hopefully by the end of the year, I’ll improve even more! This mindset improved my learning, because instead of giving up on my writing, I am and will continue to try to improve on it as the year progresses.  

Sunday, October 28, 2012

Term 1 Extra Credit

          Our class did two debates in Political Science, one about the electoral college system and the other about the supreme court's decision on the Citizen's United case allowing for unlimited donations to campaigns. In the first debate, I made the opening statement, arguing in favor for the electoral college system. I'll admit myself that I was a little bit unprepared; I figured that I would be able to state my argument by remembering just a few talking points that I thought of beforehand. As it turns out, I'm not as good at improvising as I'd thought, and according to Ms. Shapero my argument was somewhat disjointed and left many questions unanswered. However, by using Ms. Shapero's feedback, I was able to correct the mistakes I made the last time and improve my argument for the next debate. The next time, I spent much more time preparing my statement, and made sure that it had the cohesiveness that it lacked the first time around. As a result, while I lost the opening statement, I won my part of the debate the next time, as the work I put into it paid off in the end.
           These two debates were great learning experiences for me, as I was able to correct the mistakes I made in the first debate and improve my second time around. I demonstrated a growth mindset by listening to the feedback from my teacher and using it to do better on my second attempt. In addition to my lesson about putting more preparation into making a more cohesive argument, I also learned the value of learning from experience and the criticisms of others, and of being open to change to constantly improve and avoid making the same mistakes over again.

Saturday, October 27, 2012

Political Science Extra Credit Blog Post

Andrew Tarbox
Green Block
October 31, 2012

In our political science class, there have been many experiences that have allowed me to explore a certain issue in great depth. The most interesting one of these experiences was the presidential campaign blog post and blog commenting response. During this assignment I examined the presidential campaign of Jimmy Carter. In his campaign, Jimmy Carter had to portray trust and a personalized relationship with the American people. Without these characteristics, the American people would have maintained the distrust with the government that President Nixon caused after the Watergate scandal. By having the ability to make blog comments on other case studies, I was able to see the similarities between Jimmy Carter’s campaign and the Obama and Lincoln campaigns. They all had to create personal attachment with the American people after political or economic turmoil. Furthermore, not only was it interesting to see these similarities, but it was also interesting to see how similar the campaigns were to Cicero’s campaign for consul. They all used modified versions of Cicero’s idea of personal attachment. This demonstrates how when one precedent was set for campaign techniques, other campaigns followed.
While I did not receive direct feedback from peers on my blog post, their comments on my post gave me options for how I would improve it. For example, one comment I received was if Carter’s campaign was modern in message, given its use of vague generalities. I believe that if I were given the opportunity to make revisions on my blog I would have mentioned how both Carter and Obama used vague generalities. This would have emphasized how campaign techniques have remained similar to one another. Through this project, I also developed a growth mindset. I became more aware of the proper strategies and techniques candidates should use in different circumstances. For example, Jimmy Carter needed to capitalize on a personalized relationship with the American people post Watergate. In addition, continuing off the idea of appealing to the people under certain circumstances, this experience provided me with a new perspective on the campaign of Mitt Romney. Often times, candidates need to appear milder on their stances on issues to appeal to a greater group of people. For example, while Romney does not fully support some women’s rights, he needed to make comments such as his “binders full of women” one to appeal to this broad group of voters and show them that he is fighting for them. By developing a growth mindset, I was able to connect the Jimmy Carter campaign with campaigns that happened in the past and are happening now. 

Thursday, October 11, 2012

Bush campaign 2000--Liam

Liam DeFazio
            The Bush-Gore election of 2000 did not start off on a particularly exciting note. The American economy was prospering after the Clinton administration, and there was not a huge call for change. Gore had previously been Clinton’s Vice President, so he appealed to voters, reminding them of the economic stability that the Clinton administration had brought. Bush also appealed to Americans in a prosperous time by offering tax cuts and declaring a message of trust amongst the people, and that the government would not take much control of people’s money.

One important tip from Cicero that Gore neglected to use was the idea of using friends to your advantage. Gore had been Clinton’s vice president for 8 years, and Cicero would have had him call in favors from Clinton. Clinton even offered his support in situations where Gore did not accept. This was due to the fact that Clinton had an affair in the White House, which was obviously looked upon poorly by the American people, and Gore strategists thought that trying to connect him to Clinton would actually hurt his chances. Most of the Gore campaign advisers stated that the Clinton affair was the single most important factor that cost Gore the White House. Bush was able to use the Clinton affair to present himself as a moral, honorable figure that would bring integrity back to the White House, which enhanced his image.
            Another important factor in this debate was persona. Bush made numerous speaking mistakes in interviews, such as mispronouncing words, (subliminable) making grammatical errors (is our children learning?), and saying phrases incorrectly (families is where our nation finds hope, where wings take dreams). These gaffes later became known as “Bushisms.” However, instead of being upset by the ridicule he received, Bush embraced these jokes and even engaged in self-effacing humor, teasing himself. This somewhat falls under what Cicero advised about “putting on a good show.” Bush was known to have a cheerful, regular-guy manner, giving reporters nicknames, playfully insulting them, and slapping them on the back, allowing him to present himself as a down to earth candidate that made the voter feel good. Gore, on the other hand, often came across as rigid, and not seeming very likeable. This was actually one of the criticisms that Cicero had against his brother, and advised him to improve on. Gore admitted that he did not consider himself a natural politician, and that “the back-slapping political style” is not his forte. In the debates, it was accepted that Gore had a mastery of the details of public policy, and was more knowledgeable than Bush, but he came across as very full of himself and something of a “smarty pants.” He would often sigh loudly when Bush was speaking, causing him to look rude and arrogant. Bush had a more laid back manner in these debates, which made him look better on television. This clip is a perfect example. When asked a question about a specific bill and what the differences are between him and Gore, Bush gives a very vague answer to try and make him look better in the eyes of the people. Gore leaves his podium and walks right up to Bush in an alpha-male attempt to intimidate his opponent. Bush plays this off by simply giving Gore a friendly nod, causing the audience to laugh and Gore to look ridiculous.

 This enhances what was first studied after the 1960 televised debate between Kennedy and Nixon, which is that appearances on television do matter in the voter’s eyes. Although radio listeners of the 1960 debate thought that Nixon seemed stronger and more knowledgeable, television viewers thought that Kennedy came across as more confident, and as a stronger candidate. In the 2000 debates, people thought that well Gore seemed more knowledgeable, Bush came across as more likeable, and thus appeared stronger on television.
            However, as the election was nearing a close and it was estimated that Gore had a slight edge, news sources began noticing a shift in Bush’s campaign tactics. Bush strategists thought that his tactic of appealing to voters to bring back “honor and integrity” to the White House, and attacking the Clinton administration was not going to be enough. Bush used Medicare, which at that time was a major issue in which people often favored the Democratic approach, to launch a smear campaign. He said that Gore’s Medicare program would lead to extreme government control and price control over prescription drugs. One tactic that Bush’s chief political adviser Karl Rove later regretted was letting Bush take a day off 10 days before the election. He thought that if he added more campaigning in at the end, Bush could have avoided some narrow defeats in a couple states. This follows Cicero’s advice about not leaving Rome, because “there is no time for vacations in a campaign.”
            Where this election truly became notable was on election day. The results were so close that the entire election hinged on the delegates from Florida. Bush led Gore by about 1,800 votes the morning after election day, and Florida law called for an automatic machine recount of the votes. After this recount, Bush led Florida by only 327 votes out of 6 million ballots cast. Florida law allowed Gore to demand a manual recount of chosen counties, and he picked four counties with widespread complaint of machine malfunction. The results had to be certified by secretary of state Katherine Harris seven days after the election. However, three of the counties were not able to meet this deadline, and Harris rejected their explanation. Gore filed an injunction against Harris, and the Florida Supreme Court issued the injunction and said that Harris must give the counties another 12 days to finish their recounts. After this deadline, Harris declared Bush the winner, even though all of the votes were not counted. Gore appealed to the Florida Supreme Court, and they ruled that all votes cast but not counted (because of ineffective voting machines) must be manually recounted. Bush then appealed this to the US Supreme Court, which decided in a 5-4 ruling that the Florida’s Supreme Court ruling was unconstitutional as is gave more protection to some ballots then others, violating the Equal Protection Clause under the fourteenth amendment. Florida then had to submit the vote they had at the time, which gave Bush the victory with 271 delegates to Gore’s 266, although Gore had 48.4% of the popular vote to Bush’s 47.9%. This Supreme Court decision was criticized, as the five members of the majority were all conservative, and all of them previously granted great deference to state courts. Many thought that these justices did not do their duty to support the US Constitution and state’s rights at all costs, and cared more about the politics of having a Republican President. It was reported that when conservative judge Sandra Day O’Connor thought that Gore had initially won, she was very upset, because she wanted to retire if Bush became President so she could be replaced by a conservative judge.
            The 2000 election proved that Cicero’s campaign tips still hold up in the modern day. It is still important to have powerful friends to help you out, to campaign rigorously, and have a strong, likeable, persona. Appearing likeable, confident, and relatable on television was also very important in this campaign. Although it is estimated by Farley’s law that only 8% of the electorates change their minds during the course of the campaign, and only 25% of voters are persuadable, and even have a chance of switching parties, in this close campaign, persuasion was clearly a key component. People will continue to debate who deserved to win this campaign, but if Bush did not campaign as he did, he probably would not have even barely won.

Berke, Richard L.  Richard L. Berke to  New York Times newsgroup, “Gore and Bush Strategists Analyze Their Campaigns,” February 12, 2001. Accessed October 10, 2012.

Boller, Paul F., Jr. Presidential Campaigns. 2nd ed. New York City, NY: Oxford Press, 2004.

McBride, Alex. “Bush v. Gore (2000).” Last modified December 2006. Accessed October 10, 2012.

Mitchell, Alison.  Alison Mitchell to  New York Times newsgroup, “THE 2000 CAMPAIGN: THE STRATEGY; SHIFTING TACTICS, BUSH USES ISSUES TO CONFRONT GORE,” September 16, 2000. Accessed October 10, 2012.

Bill Clinton

Bill Clinton: Cultivating the Young Vote

Michael Peckham
In the 1992 presidential election, Bill Clinton and George Bush competed for the oval office, however Clinton used his youth and energy to campaign to the youth and those in seek of change. Bill Clinton was able to win his first presidential election by utilizing many of the lessons taught by Cicero. Clinton was able to become president by appealing to the young people, appearing to be young, exciting, and appearing to focus on their needs (education etc), while at the same time blaming the issues of the modern day family and young person on the republican party, blaming them for unemployment/job loss and poor education/graduation levels.
Clinton appealed to the young people of his time by “being personable and... promoting” himself to the young voters as Cicero advised, appearing on television shows and playing saxophone for millions to watch, talking to young people on MTV (in a later election) and even pushing his way to the cover of the College Edition of Rolling Stone magazine. Clinton made sure to appear to be an energetic, exciting, and likable person, posing a contradiction to the aged Bush Sr. who represented the Republican party. Clinton made himself appear, cool, young and likable to the young people in 1992, helping make a connection to them and capture their votes.

Clinton also made sure to promote himself to the public, and especially to the young people, in his “Plan for Excellence in Education”, making sure to focus on the “gaps in American education” from the previous republican president, his opponent. While at the same time Clinton also made sure to present his experience in the overhauling of education system in Arkansas, and his plan to make the United States offer the best education and jobs for the young people of his time.

Clinton also attacked the republican party, and his opposing candidate, by telling the young people the flaws of the Bush's previous term in office. Clinton reminds the populous the republicans had tried to lower college loans in one of his television ad’s, again reminding the youth of why not to vote for his opponent. Yet again continuing to take the advice of Cicero, he took care to “assure the common people that you have always been on their side”, reminding the young people of his “more than 11 years... on the front lines of the battle to revolutionize, revitalize, and reform education”. By putting to use the power of young people in not only their voting power but their power to use their energy to help capture the presidential office.

As the election eventually turns out, the gap in the young vote, being 13% and the minority vote, helped Clinton seize the election, he took the advice of Cicero and was able to take the office in 1992. Without utilizing the many lessons taught by Cicero, seizing victory in the election would have been extremely difficult and likely impossible.

All Voters

65 & over

Bill Clinton. Photograph. July 1992.      18/1870/9YX8D00Z/posters/seliger-mark-bill-clinton-rolling-stone-no-639-september-1992.jpg. "Bill Clinton Saxophone 1992." Video file. Clinton, Bill. "The Clinton Plan for Excellence in Education." The Phi Delta Kappan 74, no. 2      (October 1992). "I believe in a place called hope pin." Photograph.      BILL-CLINTON-Campaign-Pin-Political-Pinback-Button-1992-/14/      !Bi-3Obg!Wk~$(KGrHqEH-CEEsZidQOLHBLRlSY)V3!~~_35.JPG. "1992 Bill Clinton Campaign Ads (around October 1992)." Video file.      voted_92.html#.UHa0mMXA9oF.